This is a (very) non-exhaustive analysis of European sparkling wines made in the traditional method, excepting champagne. They are all distinctive in their own ways and require good theoretical knowledge of the styles (i.e. you have to know the varieties for each style at a minimum).
The differentiating features are about climate (fruit ripeness and acid integration), autolytic pick up and acid structure (both variety dependent) and the ‘X factor’ for each style - the distinctive character unique to each style.
Sparkling wines require particularly careful tasting to identify successfully in a blind tasting, but these tips should help.
English sparkling wine - Champagne varieties
The acidity is the giveaway here. Not only is it high or even bracing, it is also resolutely separate from the fruit/body of the wine - not integrated. The acid structure can really be the dominant feature of the wine.
The wine as a whole can be austere
The acidity itself can taste a touch green, or unripe
Chardonnay dominant wines - and there are many Blanc de Blancs - are powerfully linear. They really course along.
Can show excellent autolytic character
Less ripe fruit character even than champagne; sometimes you find a green, ‘hedgerow’ character which comes both from the flavour profile and the quality of the acidity
Cremant d’Alsace - usually Pinot Blanc and Auxerrois
Can have moderate to high acidity, which is a little surprising given the texture (see below)
Aromatically intense, but does NOT pick up autolytic notes
Only moderately fruited
Can have good concentration on the mid palate and (sometimes like Menuier in champagne) for that reason can appear higher in quality than it really is. The trick is to let it warm up a little and the wine becomes flabby and oily in texture.
Cremant de Loire - almost any variety can be included, but Chenin Blanc is most typical
The Chenin Blanc is the key here, and gives a similar acid structure to still examples of the variety
Look for a particularly mouth watering, bracing acidity on the finish
A certain aromatic funkiness - in addition to the usual honey, wax and bruised apple, a kind of saltiness
Cremant de Jura - Chardonnay and Savagnin
Any wine with a good quantity of Savagnin in it will have that distinctive, meaty, gamey note that is so distinctive
Chardonnay must be 50% of the blend, but even Chardonnay here has a certain aromatic funk - salty and nutty
Cremant de Bourgogne - Chardonnay and Pinot Noir
The Cremant most similar to champagne, but lacks the complexity or length
Slightly richer and fuller than champagne thanks to the warmer climate, but obviously a similar aromatic spectrum
The most autolytic of all the Cremants
Can be red fruited on the nose and have a more energetic mousse than champagne
Cremant de Bordeaux - all the red and white Bordeaux varieties
Rarely seen on export markets so not worth dwelling on
Cremant de Limoux
This is not Blanquette! Blanquette is the local name for Mauzac, so that variety predominates in Blanquette. As a result, Blanquette can be intensely bruised apple with very high acidity
Cremant was created in 1990 for a more international style, with a particular emphasis on Chardonnay and Chenin Blanc, although Mauzac is permitted too
A driving, linear acidity from the combination of Chardonnay and Chenin, felt particularly on finish
Not as ripe as Cava to the south, but still more flavor dimension than Loire/Bourgogne/Alsace
Earthy and funky
Simply riper than any of the above, owing to the warmer climate
Can have an earthiness which may be confused with Limoux
But greater range of fruit expression beyond just citrus
More rounded and gourmand a wine than the French sparklers
Acidity is better integrated and less conspicuous
Commercial examples can have notable dosage
Franciacorta - Chardonnay/Pinot Nero/Pinot Bianco
The closest lookalike to champagne with the exception of English sparkling wine
High quality autolytic notes, often showing considerable complexity
Acidity is often racy, especially in Blanc de Blancs styles
Riper fruit and more mid palate weight than champagne, as befits the more southerly origin
Look out for a telltale waxy/meaty note on the nose, a bit like the smell of the rind on a cured meat. I used to think this was the Pinot Bianco, but have subsequently found it in non-PB wines too